The Maronite Patriarchs
Histoire des Maronites French
The First Maronite Patriarch : Yuhanna Maroun el Sroumi ( 685 - 707 )
The Maronite Patriarchs since
Boulos Tawaghan (661-665)
Korius relative of Yuhanna Maron
Yuhanna el Damlassi
Gregorius from Halate
Marcus from Antioque
Yuhanna from Homs
Joshua from al Sham
Dimitus from Beirut
Youssef from Jbeil
Gerges from Batroun
Ethenasius from Akka
Gregorius from Ehden
Marcus from Tyr
Clemensus from Antioque
Mikhael from Toula-Batroun
Boulos from Kfarsaroun-Jobbet
Simeon from el Sham
Zakharia from Ban
Samuel el Razzi from Bkoufa
Yuhanna from A'aktanit
Daniel from Tripoli
Boutros from Smar Jbeil
Moussa from KfarZayna
Boulos from Hayfa
Youssef from Chadra
Maroun from Bikfaya
Ibrahim from Nassira
Hezkial from Darb el Sim
Antoun from Lehfed
Elias from Hakel
Andrews from Beirut
Kirellus from Cyprus
Ethenasius from Tyr
Yuwakim from Kodss
Elias from Batroun
Luca from Raskifa
Mikhael from Beirut
Yuhanna from Homs
Simeon from Kobayat
Ermia from Yafa
Zakaria from Kodss
Yuhanna from Hakel
Simeon from Antioque
Achi'ya from Bejje
Daoud from Akkar
Gregorius from Arqa
Elias from Tal Seb'el
Semaan from Arjess
The Maronite Patriarchs since 1110
Youssef EL GERGESS (1110-1120)
Jean from Jaje (1440-1445)
Yacoub from Hadath (1445-1468)
Georges OMAIRA from Ehden (1633-1644)
Siméon AWAD from Hasroun (1743-1756)
Michel FADEL from Beyrouth (1793-1795)
Youssif Tyan was born in Beirut and belonged to a prominent Maronite family,
who sent him to Rome at an early age where he was educated in the Maronite
College and ordained priest in 1784. In the year 1786 he was consecrated
bishop of Damascus, and in 1788 he became Patriarchal Vicar. April 28th 1796
he became Patriarch Youssif Tyan. When in 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte besieged
Akka, being now Patriarch he asked the Prince of Lebanon Bashir II to rally
to Napoleon with his Lebanese soldiers. Bachir did not respond, but
Patriarch Tyan urged the Maronites to volunteer for the French forces. The
Patriarch also sent ammunition and supplies to the French army. But despite
this help Napoleon failed to capture Akka. The Patriarch decided to
abdicate and sent a letter to the Roman See to this effect on 3rd October
1807. On June 8th 1809, Bishop Yuhanna El-Helou succeeded him. Patriarch
Tyan then retired in the hermitage of Saint Ephrem in Dar'un, Kesrawan. A
few years later he moved to a newly established Seminary college of St. John
Marun in Kefar-Hay Batrun, where he taught theology.
Patriarch Yuhanna El-Helou's achievements were by no means inconsiderable. He repaired and restored the Patriarchal See of Qannubeen that had been abandoned by the Patriarchs for a hundred years. Patriarch El-Helou inhabited Qannubeen from 1811. He regained much of the church's property that had been taken away injustly.
He converted the Monastery of St. John Marun in Kefar-Hay Batrun and that of Rumieh Qolay'at in Kesrawan into Patriarchal Colleges and seminaries in 1812 and 1817 respectively.
In 1818, he
convoked the Maronite general Council of Luayzeh.
Patriarch Hobeish insisted upon the application of the Code of the Lebanese Council in 1736, Especially as regards to the religious instruction and preaching, and the encouragement of seminaries for the education of the clergy. He founded two new seminaries, those of Mar 'Abdas Herheraya and St. Serge of Rayfun. In these two seminaries and in those of Kefar-Hay Rumieh, and 'Ayn-Warqa he made the teaching of Syriac, Arabic, Italian, Latin, philosophy, theology and physical sciences obligatory. In 1840, he founded a religious congregation of missionaries for the purpose of teaching religion in the villages and towns.
Patriarch Hobeish was a true apostle. He use to visit the parishes of his Patriarchate, instructing the priests in their functions and obligations, teaching them theology, settling local quarrels and reuniting families. In the turbulent years of the Egyptian invasion between 1831 and 1840, Lebanon became the arena of international conflicts involving France, Britain, Turkey, Austria, Prussia and other powers. In the midst of the turmoil, Patriarch Hobeish succeeded in unifying both the Maronite community and the Lebanese multiconfessional population.
Patriarch Hobeish moved the patriarchal residence from Qannubeen valley to Dimane. While Yusif Hobeish was Patriarch, Lebanon was divided into two administrative districts (Qaim-maqamat); one Maronite and one Druze. Amir Haydar Abi-Lama was chosen by the Patriarch to be the governor of the Maronite district.
Patriarch Hobeish died on the 23rd of May 1845, and was buried in the church of Qannubeen.
Raji Al-Khazen was elected at Dayr Mayfuq, on the 8th of August 1845. In
1845 the Turkish army ignoring the autonomy of Mount Lebanon, invaded the
Mountain, to disarm the population. In Northern Lebanon the Maronites,
particularly those of 'Aqura, Tannureen, Besharry and Ehden, opposed the
Turks with the army of several thousand under the leadership of Hosn al-Khazen
and Abu-Samra Ghanem. The Maronites had nothing to face the Turkish
artillery, Patriarch al-Khazen intervened and persuaded the Turks to call a
halt to the war and to agree to a settlement negotiated between the
Patriarch and the Turkish government with indemnities paid by the latter. A
new code of regulations called "code of Shakeeb Afandy" was drawn up for
In the first few years of the Patriarchate of Bulos Mass'ad (1857-1859), the people of Kesrawan revolted against the al-Khazen family, whose members had been strengthening Christianity in Kesrawan since the time of Kakhr-al-Din. The darkest period of the Maronite Nation, occurred during the Patriarchate of Bulos Mass'ad, with the civil war between Maronites and Druzes, in the 1860. The Patriarch could not effectively bring peace and unity during this period. Patriarch Mass'ad died on April 18th 1890, at Bkerke and was buried in St Peter's school, in Ashqut, his native village.
first years of his Patriarchate, Patriarch Yuhanna al-Haj built the
beautiful patriarchal residence of Bkerke, acquired extensive property at
Moghayre Jebayl for the benefit of a Maronite seminary. During the
Patriarchate of Yuhanna El-Haj, archbishop Elias Hoyek (the future
Patriarch) acquired a building in Jerusalem to serve as residence for the
representative of the Maronite comminute in the holy city. The Maronite
population in Palestine and Lebanon contributed the necessary money.
Archbishop Hoyek also acquired a building in Rome in which the new Maronite
College of Rome was installed in 1893.
Elias Hoyek was born at the village of Helta, Batrun, in December 1843. He did his primary and elementary studies in the Seminary College of St. John Maron, in Kefar-Hay near Helta. He was admitted to the seminary of Ghazir, run by Jesuit, priests, in October 1859. There he studied French, Arabic, Syriac, Latin, Greek and Philosophy.
In November 1866 he entered the College of Propaganda in Rome, where he studied theology. He was ordained priest in Rome in 1870 and returned to Lebanon. His father had died when he was in Rome. He spent sometime at home to take care of his mother and his young brothers. He spent two years teaching theology at the Seminary of St. John Maron. In 1872 he was appointed patriarchal secretary and moved to the patriarchal residence. Of great integrity and fearless character, he was revered and respected by all. He was consecrated Archbishop of Arqa and Patriarchal Vicar on December 14th, 1899.
He left Lebanon on May 8, 1890 for
Rome for the purpose of reviving the Maronite college there, destroyed by
Napoleon in 1799. This task made great demands on all his qualities of
initiative, courage, perseverance and diplomacy. He met Pope Leo XIII in the
Vatican on June 15th, July23rd, August 2nd, and August 10th of the year
1890. During these visits the Pope and Archbishop Hoyek elaborated plans to
reactivate the Maronite College in Rome.
The new college was opened on
January 1st, 1894, to receive twelve students from the Maronite dioceses of
Besharry, Aleppo, Tripoli, Gebayl-Batrun, Ehden, Ba’albeck, Damascus,
Cyprus, Beirut, Tyre and Sidon. Thus were rewarded years of gigantic efforts
PASTORAL AND SPIRITUAL ACTIVITY
OF PATRIARCH HOYEK
Thus the complete name of
Patriarch Hoyek is "Elias (personal name) Butros (St. Peter) Hoyek,
Patriarch of Antioch and all the East".
HOYEK and the diasporia
In 1902, Patriarch Hoyek delegated the Rev. Shikralla Khury and Rev. Butros Shebly to visit the Maronites of Cyprus. They visited the Maronites of Limassol, Larnaca, Nicosia, Kurmagit, Karpacia, Gamblin, Merkin, Asomathos, Aya Marina, Mar-Romanos (Qono), Mar Antonios (Kefryat), Varucia, Mersine, Adana and Tarsus. During their visit, the Patriarchal delegates spent a considerable amount of money in helping needy Maronites and their institutions in the island. They presented the Patriarch with an exhaustive written report about the situation of the Maronites in Cyprus from the spiritual, social and material standpoints.
In 1920, Patriarch Hoyek sent a
delegation to visit the Maronites in the United States of America, in
Argentina and in other parts of the New World.
Patriarch Hoyek in Paris.
FIRST WORLD WAR
The Patriarch at the Peace
Congress in Versailles (1919):
Patriarch Hoyek left Lebanon for France and met President Clemenceau on October 5th, 1919; on October 27th he presented the assembly of Peace Congress with a memorandum in fifteen pages demonstrating the right of Lebanon to independence and its ability to exercise national sovereignty. The claims of the Patriarch were recognized and approved by Clemenceau in an official document issued and delivered to the Patriarch on November 10th ,1919.
known as Selim Ben Abdel Ahad ARIDA and was born in Becharre on August 2nd
1863. He studied the Arab and Syriac languages at a school in his region,
and in 1879, at the school of St Jean-Maroun at Kfar-Hay where he spent 5
Jezzine on April 1st 1894, though his primary studies were attended at a
school in his village, it followed with the school of the Mariamite sisters
at Deir el Kamar, and finally at the college of La Sagesse. He traveled to
Rome before the beginning of the First World War and continued his studies
at a university. He was ordained priest on December 7th 1917. He traveled to
the United States where he spent 14 years. In April 1934 he was elected
Bishop for the region of Tyr and was ordained Bishop in December 1934.
born in Ain - Ebel in the south of Lebanon in 1907. He had his primary
studies at a school in the village and was sent to Rome to continue his
philosophical and theological studies at the age of 13. He received his
doctorate in philosophy at the age of 16 but due to an illness, returned to
Lebanon, and continued his theological studies at the University of Saint
Joseph in Beirut.
English - Portuguese
He is the 3rd Maronite Cardinal and the 76th Patriarch of the Maronite Church.
Born in Rayfoun, Kesrouan, the 15 May 1920
Primary and Complementary studies at Mar Abda School - Harharaya.
Secondary studies at St. Maron Seminary - Ghazir.
Philosophical and Theological studies at St. Joseph University of Beirut (Licensed in Philosophy and Theology)
7 May 1950 Ordained Priest
Sua Beatitude Mar Nasrallah Boutros Cardinel Sfeir
Patriarca Maronita de Antíoquia e todo o Oriente
É o 3º Cardinal Maronita
e o 76º Patriarca da Igreja Maronita
Nascido em Rayfoun, Kesrouan no Líbano em 15 de Maio de 1920
Completou seus estudos primários na escola Mar Abda em Harharaya e seus estudos secundários no Seminário St. Maron em Ghazir.
É licenciado em Filosofia e Teologia pela Universidade St. Joseph em Beirut
Em 7 de Maio de
1950 foi ordenado Padre.
De 1951 a 1955, serviu como Padre na Paróquia de Rayfoun e secretário na Arquidiocese de Damascus na Síria.
Em 1956 foi secretário do Patriarcado Maronita em Bkerke e Professor deTradução de Literatura e Filosofia no Colégio dos Irmãos Maronitas (Collége des Fréres) em Jounieh.
Em 19 Junho de 1961 foi indicado Bispo e Vigário Patriarcal
Em 3 Julho de 1961 foi confirmada sua eleição pela sua Santidade Papa João XXIII.
Em 16 Julho de 1961 foi ordenado Bispo.
De 1961 a 1986 foi vigário Patriarcal e secretário do Patriarca Maronita
Em 19 de Abril de 1986 foi eleito Patriarca de Antioquia e todo o Oriente.
Em 7 de Maio de 1986 lhe-foi confiado o "ecclesiastic communio"
Em 26 de Novembro de 1994, foi ordenado Cardinal pelo Papa João Paulo II
Em 1995 foi Presidente da Assembleía Especial no Sínodo dos Bispos para o Líbano.
Suas Publicações em Árabe:
السيرة الذاتية للبطريرك السابع
والسبعين للكنيسة المارونية
References: Bkerke Site, مختصر تاريخ جبل لبنان للشيخ انطونيوس العينطوريني